迈向友好、更持久农业的健康步骤

论文
2021年8月5日

迈向友好、更持久农业的健康步骤

哈罗德·斯基普·康尼特著

在地球之友出现很久之前,土地之友就出现了. 全国性的农民组织, 自然资源保护论者, 土壤科学家和作家, 《亚洲最大电子网站》是我们今天所知的环保运动的先驱. 在20世纪40年代后期达到顶峰, 它的土壤保护运动通过集会在农村地区展开, 会议, and a quarterly magazine that featured essays by Aldo Leopold and Rachel Carson long before they were household names.

如果这片土地需要《亚洲最大电子网站》,现在是时候了. A resurrected and repurposed Friends of the Land could do for climate crisis mitigation what it did for soil erosion three generations ago. If nothing else, we need to remember and honor the “permanent agriculture” movement it started. 大地之友准备了这块地, 可以这么说, for the milestone victory last week when Bayer-Monsanto pledged to stop selling Round-Up for lawn and garden use by 2023.

These Post-Round-Up plots of land — millions of acres if pieced together — present a huge opportunity to reimagine and restore our most valuable resource.

The primary mission of Friends was reversing a national crisis that culminated with the Dust Bowl. Permanent agriculture offered a more holistic and regenerate approach to farming than the monolithic industrial agriculture that was also eroding the fabric of family farms and rural communities. 它的处方是——更多的覆盖作物, 少耕和过度放牧, long-term organic practices rather than short-term chemical ones — was the right medicine at the wrong time. 《亚洲最大电子网站》成立于美国加入第二次世界大战之时. 巨大的, industrialized upscaling of food production needed for the war became the scientific and business blue print for the green revolution that has dominated agriculture ever since. Friends faded away but it prepared the ground for the organic farming movement and the permaculture principles now regaining the attention they deserve as the climate crisis upends business as usual.

著名作家兼农民路易斯·布罗姆菲尔德, 是《亚洲最大电子网站》创始人中最直言不讳的, 我们今天要重新开始, 他会把美国的使命集中在哪里? 复垦造林? 减少氮径流? 使更多的有机物返回到土壤中? 急于增加碳封存, 这些战略是高度优先考虑的, 然而,对多年生粮食作物的追求是一个覆盖了大部分土地的问题. 这个圣杯带来了真正的免耕农业, 不是今天大肆吹捧的那种依赖于日益增加的除草剂使用的方法, 围捕是最主要的.

当今最具远见的可持续农业先驱是韦斯·杰克逊, 她是植物育种家和可持续发展活动家,在萨利纳创立了土地研究所, KS, 大约40年前. The Institute’s long and painstaking work on perennial grains and Natural Systems Agriculture has gained national attention recently as its perennial Kernza wheat inches closer to commercial viability. 在疫情爆发前两个月, 该研究所来到奥斯汀参加休斯顿-蒂洛森大学为期三天的研讨会. 从那时起,该研究所与奥斯汀的亚洲最大娱乐平台越来越紧密. 新会长瑞秋·施特罗尔(Rachel Stroer)和她的家人住在这里. Retired University of Texas journalism professor Robert Jensen just completed a short yet insightful book on Jackson’s legacy, which includes creating one of the first university sustainability studies programs in the country.

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韦斯·杰克逊

早在我遇见杰克逊之前, 我是在为罗代尔学院的新农场杂志写文章时被介绍到布罗姆菲尔德的. New Farm editor George DeVault had published a revised collection of Bromfield’s writings on his restoration of Malabar Farm. 布罗姆菲尔德的俄亥俄州农场成为并仍然是永久农业倡导者的圣地. Malabar was inspiration for David Bamberger in restoring depleted Hill Country ranch land. Such a radical transformation required not only time and money but a lifelong commitment. 今天,班贝格牧场保护区就是德克萨斯州的马拉巴尔农场.

然而,在温伯利的一个牧场上,我与土地之友重新取得了亚洲最大娱乐平台. 在修复后的小屋的壁炉架上,挂着一份牧场主人的家族史, 多萝西马龙Gumbert. 她父亲克拉伦斯·马龙(Clarence Malone)在圣马科斯郊外的一个农场长大. 年后返回, 一位有影响力的休斯顿银行家, 看到自家的土地“被冲刷成红色,流血而死”,他悲痛欲绝.“他的务农生活早已远去,但他对土地的热爱却依然如故. 单枪匹马地, Malone created an agriculture department at Second National Bank and instituted a statewide soil conservation campaign. Malone joined forces with Bromfield in 1948 and invited leading captains of industry to a dinner at Columbia University. 在场的还有另一个农场男孩,德怀特·艾森豪威尔.

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Louis Bromfield(左),Clarence Malone(左二)

布罗姆菲尔德和马龙最终在“老友记”的组织结构上分道扬镳. 一如既往, Texas had the largest membership among state chapters and Malone wanted a proportional share of dues returning here. 当布罗姆菲尔德提出异议时,马龙创建了德克萨斯保护之友组织.

马龙擅长公共关系,就像擅长金融一样. 农民们不想听银行家告诉他们如何耕作. And bankers were slow recognize that loaning farmers money to restore soil was a good investment. 马龙通过在演讲活动中提供免费烧烤晚餐来吸引农民离开农场. 库埃罗的一项活动吸引了2000多名农民. 朋友们确实在农场门口停了下来. Its message infiltrated Texas public high schools by sponsoring essay contests; to avoid the potentially dull subject of soil conservation, 比赛在爱国主义和资本主义的“好土壤”框架下进行, 良好的农业和良好的政府使自由和机会成为可能.”

In his introduction to Texas Friend’s first publication — The Good Earth: Our Richest Heritage — Malone noted that this private partnership of agricultural, 工业和金融捐赠者为每个学生带来了6美元的投资. It’s tempting to imagine how a similar investment could introduce sustainability activities to our high schools today. 毫无疑问, Malone was promoting not only soil conservation but the rapid growth of Texas energy and chemical industries. Texas farmers were increasingly dependent on its fossil fuels to run their tractors and fertilize their fields. Texans’ greatest source of wealth no longer came from soil but the oil and gas far beneath it. The miracles of the green revolution exploited one resource at the expense of the other. 一个不同的, 但同样毁灭性的, form of erosion — what Jackson calls “chemotherapy of the soil” — is the heavy price we are paying for producing cheap, 精制, 缺乏营养的食物.

我们想象一个更友好的农业未来,减少对化石燃料的依赖, the vision and passion of the Bromfields and Malones of yesterday and the Bambergers and Jacksons of today are an inspiration, 指向更健康的, 更可持续的前进道路. 这条路从来没有这么绿过. 字面上的. The post-Round-Up lawns and gardens of tomorrow pose new challenges yet great opportunities to reconnect and deepen our relationship with nature. 现在是时候像一个老实人一样思考和行动了. Now is the time for landowners big and small to support and follow today’s leaders of permanent agriculture.

在他对詹森的书的展望中, 永不停歇的韦斯·杰克逊, 环境学家大卫·奥尔(David Orr)以乐观的口吻结束了讲话. Our richest heritage has been squandered by short-term thinking and profits but it can be regenerated by new definitions of greatness and success, 它们不再依赖于支配自然系统.

“我们生活在这些雄心的废墟中, 不一定是那些失败的,而是那些成功的,”奥尔写道. “One hopes that their descendants will learn how to be ecologically competent “homecomers,用杰克逊的话来说就是:扎根于此, 擅长和睦, 修复, 节俭, and humility; and practitioners of democracy worthy of the name.”

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绿门农场野生多年生黑麦和内海燕麦.

种树意味着什么
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